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Green Cloverworm

Article author: Pat Porter
Most recently reviewed by: Suhas Vyavhare (1970)

Common Name(s): Black snout moth, Green Cloverworm


Newly hatched larvae are about 0.5 mm long at hatching and are pale and yellow. Older larvae are light green and have two yellowish-white stripes on the side of the body. Green cloverworms have four pairs of prolegs (three pair under the center of the body and one pair at the end of the abdomen), and this makes them easy to differentiate from soybean loopers because loopers have only two pairs of prolegs. Another distinguishing characteristic is that when disturbed, green cloverworms usually exhibit a rapid flopping or squirming behavior. Loopers do not exhibit this behavior. 

Adults are triangular-shaped and brownish to grayish, about 1 – 1.4 inches in length. They have a relatively long snout. Females have more silver coloration than do males.

Green cloverworm adult.

Green cloverworm adult. Patrick Porter

Origin and Distribution

North America.

Habitat & Hosts

Green cloverworm is a defoliator and capable of removing large amounts of leaf tissue very quickly when present in significant numbers. It is usually a sporadic pest in Texas. Eggs are about 0.5 mm in diameter and are laid singly on the undersides of leaves. Small larvae may only eat the lower tissue of a leaf and leave the upper tissue intact; this is known as skeletonizing. Larger larvae chew all the way through leaf tissue and can eat all of the leaf blade except the larger veins. Green cloverworms are usually not pod feeders, but can damage pods (depending on pod maturity), especially when all available leaf tissue has been consumed. 

Green cloverworm damage to soybean.

Green cloverworm damage to soybean. Patrick Porter

Life Cycle

Green cloverworms have complete metamorphosis. There is an egg stage, six larval stages (instars), a pupal stage and an adult stage. In Texas there are at least three generations per year.  Overwintering occurs along the Gulf Coast.


If you live in the State of Texas, contact your local county agent or entomologist for management information. If you live outside of Texas, contact your local extension for management options.

Significant yield loss in soybean can occur at 20% defoliation in the podfill stage. Control decisions should be made on leaf damage because there are several defoliating pests of soybean and they may all be contributing to yield loss. In addition to green cloverworm, these species can include soybean loopers, cabbage loopers and velvetbean caterpillars. Soybean growers are referred to Managing Soybean Insects in Texas. 

There are several diseases, especially granulosis virus, that help control populations, and beneficial insects (predators and parasitoids) help in control as well. 

Registered insecticides include several pyrethroids like esfenvalerate, cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, zeta-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. Other insecticides include carbaryl, spinosad, acephate and methomyl. Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana can be used for control.

Related Publications

Managing Soybean Insects in Texas.

Silverleaf whitefly

Article author: Erfan Vafaie
Most recently reviewed by: Pat Porter & David Kerns & Suhas Vyavhare (2018)

Common Name(s): Silverleaf Whitefly, Sweetpotato whitefly


The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a global pest of many economically important host plants (Simmons et al. 2008) such as eggplant, tomato, sweet potato, cucumber, garden bean (Tsai & Wang 1996), cotton, and poinsettias, to name a few. Similar to other sucking insect pests, silverleaf whiteflies reduce plant vigor, growth, and can even cause mortality by piercing plant tissue and feeding on plant phloem (Bryne & Miller 1990). Whiteflies excrete waste as a sugary solution, known as honeydew. Excessive honeydew can result in inoculation of a complex of fungi, resulting in a black layer or crust forming on the surface, commonly referred to as sooty mold. In addition to causing detrimental damage by feeding, B. tabaci has been recorded to vector more than 100 plant viruses (Jones 2003), which can result in rapid widespread crop loss. Some of these viruses in Texas include Cucurbit leaf curl virus (Brown et al. 2000) and cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (Kao et al. 2000).

Adult whiteflies resemble very small (1 mm or 3/64-in) white moths. When disturbed, adult whiteflies will often leap off the plant and fly a short distance before landing on a nearby surface. Whitefly nymphs, especially younger nymphs, can be hard to see with the naked eye. Whitefly nymphs often blend with the leaf due to their color and relatively flat shape. The final nymph instar is often referred to as a pupa, when they become darker yellow color and are more round, making them easier to distinguish on the leaf. Once they emerge as adults, their shed ‘skin’ stays on the leaf, known as an exuvia. The exuviae stay on the leaf and resemble a small empty shell.

Adult silverleaf whiteflies can be confused for other whiteflies that may occur in Texas, with two other common ones being the badedwing whitefly (Trialeurodes abutiloneus) and greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum).

Origin and Distribution

Silverleaf whiteflies are considered a global pest, however there are certain biotypes or species that are more prevalent in different parts of the world. Texas has populations of both MEAM1 (B biotype) and MED (Q biotype) whitefly.

Life Cycle

Whiteflies are closely related to mealybugs and scale insects. Female adult whiteflies lay eggs, often in a circular pattern as result of the female using her feeding proboscis as a pivot while laying eggs. Eggs are pear-shaped and approximately 0.2 mm long (CABI MEAM1). On cotton, eggs take between 5 to 22.5 days to emerge as crawlers when held at 16.7ºC (62F) or 32.5ºC (90.5) (Butler et al. 1983), respectively. After emerging from the eggs, a mobile stage known as “crawlers” find a place nearby to settle. Once settled, whitefly nymphs are considered rather immobile until after metamorphosis. Bemisia tabaci undergo four instar stages before pupation and becoming a winged adult. The total development time from egg to adult varies from 16.6 days at 30ºC (86F) to 65.1 days at 14.9ºC (59F) in cotton (Butler et al. 1983). Adult females lay approximately 72 – 81 eggs and survive an average of 8 to 10.4 days in controlled studies (Butler et al. 1983).


If you live in the State of Texas, contact your local county agent or entomologist for management information. If you live outside of Texas, contact your local extension for management options.

Silverleaf whitefly taxonomy is currently under revision, but it is generally agreed upon that there are specific groups of silverleaf whiteflies that exhibit different host plant preferences, reproductive rates, and resistance to insecticides. Originally, it was thought that silverleaf whiteflies were composed of several different ‘biotypes’, a couple well-known ones including the “B” (MEAM1) and “Q” (MED) biotypes, but now has been proposed to be made up of at least 34 morphologically indistinguishable species (Tay et al. 2012). The MEAM1 whiteflies have greater reproductive potential than the MED whiteflies, however the MED whiteflies are resistant to several different insecticides, such as pyriproxyfen and imidacloprid. Growers are encouraged to either use biological control to prevent further rise of resistance to insecticides, or rotate between insecticides that are known to be effective against both MEAM1 and MED whiteflies. See “Related Publications” below for more information.

Whitefly populations can be monitored using yellow sticky cards or searching the undersides of leaves for eggs, nymphs, pupae, exuviae, or adults. Look for other signs of infestation, such as honeydew, sooty mold, or chlorosis.

In many regions of Europe and North America, silverleaf whiteflies in protected culture (i.e. greenhouses) are managed through regular releases of biological control agents. In the USA, commercially available biological control agents that have demonstrated potential management of silverleaf whiteflies include Eretmocerus eremicus (Hoddle and van Driesche) and Amblyseius swirskii (Calvo et al. 2010).

Insecticidal management of silverleaf whiteflies are highly dependent on commodity, location, setting, and thresholds. Some active ingredients that have demonstrated efficacy against both MEAM1 and MED silverleaf whiteflies include:

  • Abamectin
  • Abamectin + Bifenthrin
  • Acetamiprid
  • Beauvaria bassiana
  • Cyantraniliprole
  • Dinotefuran
  • Isaria fumosorosea
  • Horticultural Oil*
  • Insecticidal Soap*
  • Pyridaben
  • Pyrifluquinazon
  • Spiromesifen
  • Spirotetramat
  • Thiamethoxam

(Kumar et al. 2017)
*Beware of application in extreme heat and exposure to sun. Can cause leaf burn/phytotoxicity.

For more information, consult one of our related publications below for whitefly management specific to your situation.

Related Publications

CABI Bemisia tabaci (MEAM1) fact sheet:

CABI Bemisia tabaci (MED) fact sheet:

Byrne, David N. (1991). Whitefly biology. Annual Review of Entomology, 36: 431 – 457.

Suhas et al. (2018). Managing Cotton Insects in Texas. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension.

Kumar et al. (2017). Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) management program for ornamental plants. UF/IFAS Extension.


Brown et al. (2000). Cucurbit leaf curl virus, a new whitefly transmitted geminivirus in Arizona, Texas, and Mexico. The American Phytopathological Society, 84(7): 809.

Butler et al. (1983). Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): Development, oviposition, and longevity in relation to temperature. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 76: 310 – 313.

Byrne & Miller (1990). Carbohydrate and amino acid composition of phloem sap and honeydew produced by Bemisia tabaciJournal of Insect Physiology, 36: 433 – 439.

CABI Bemisia tabaci (MEAM1) fact sheet:

Calvo et al. (2011). Control of Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis in cucumber by Amblyseius swirskii. 56(2): 185 – 192.

Hoddle, M. and van Driesche, R. G. (1999). Evaluation of inundative release of Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa Beltsville strain in commercial greenhouses for control of Bemisia argentifolii (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on poinsettia stock plants. Biology and Microbial Control, 92(4): 811 – 824.

Jones D (2003). Plant viruses transmitted by whiteflies. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 109: 197 – 221.

Kao et al. (2000). First report of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (genus Crinivirus) in North America. The American Phytopathological Society, 84(1): 101.

Kumar et al. (2017). Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) management program for ornamental plants. UF/IFAS Extension.

Simmons et al. (2008). Forty-nine new host plant species for Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Entomological Science, 11: 385 – 390.

Tay et al. (2012). Will the real Bemisia tabaci please stand up? PLoS ONE, 7(11): 7 – 11.

Tsai & Wang (1996). Development and reproduction of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on five host plants. Environmental Entomology, 25(4): 810 – 816.

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Crapemyrtle bark scale

Article author: Erfan Vafaie, Mike Merchant, Mengmeng Gu
Most recently reviewed by: Janet Hurley (2018)

Common Name(s): crapemyrtle bark scale


The crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) lagerstromiae (Kuwana), was first confirmed in the USA in 2004 in the landscape near Dallas (TX), although it was likely introduced earlier. The scale is a sucking insect that feeds on the phloem (sap) of plants. As it feeds, it excretes a sugary solution known as “honeydew” (similar to aphids, whiteflies, and other sucking insects). Heavy infestations of crapemyrtle bark scale produce sufficient honeydew to coat leaves, stems and bark of the tree. This honeydew, in turn, will eventually turn black as it is colonized by a concoction of fungi, called sooty mold. Although crapemyrtles rarely die as a result of crapemyrtle bark scale infestation, the sticky leaves and black trunks greatly reduce the attractive appearance of the tree.

Immature crapemyrtle bark scale are hard to see with the naked eye, but adult scale covers and egg sacs are frequently visible on the upper branches and trunk of the tree. These scales include larger, white, oval (female) and smaller, elongate (male) scales.  Both male and female scales of the crapemyrtle bark scale are immobile, and will “bleed” pink blood when crushed.

Heavy crapemyrtle bark scale infestation

Heavy infestation of crapemyrtle bark scale with sooty mold. Presence of ladybeetle pupa indicates some predation. Photo by Erfan Vafaie.

Origin and Distribution

The crapemyrtle bark scale is native to Asia, and had previously been reported from China, Japan, and Korea. In its native range, it has been reported on plants from 16 different genera and 13 families, most notable persimmon and pomegranate.

Since its introduction, crapemyrtle bark scale has spread across most of the southeastern United States. Human transport on infested nursery material likely accounts for the long distance spread of the scale. Short distance spread likely occurs via wind or by hitchhiking on birds, mammals and larger flying insects.

Habitat & Hosts

Crapemyrtle bark scale is found almost exclusively on the bark. Within a tree, first stage crawler numbers are similar on both upper and lower branches, based on trapping on 12 trees in College Station TX throughout one season (Vafaie et al., 2015).

In the U.S., crapemyrtle bark scale has been seen primarily on crapemyrtle (Lagerstromia spp.), but also more recently confirmed on American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana.). Based on the literature from its native range (Wang et al. 2016a), crapemyrtle bark scale may be found on additional plant families. Although not yet confirmed, some additional plant hosts of crapemyrtle bark scale may include:
(Click scientific name for distribution in the U.S.)

Life Cycle

After hatching, the scale emerging from the egg is called a crawler. This first life stage (1st instar) is mobile and is the only stage that can disperse (via wind or animal transport). Once settled on the tree, the crawler remains in the same spot for the remainder of its immature life. Nymphs actively feed and produce honeydew. Mature female adults form a waxy protective covering (ovisac), mate with a male scale, and begin laying eggs. Females lay between 114 to 320 eggs in their lifetime (Jiang et al. 1998) and die in the egg sac. Upon completing their immature lifecycle, males pupate within the adult scale cover, and emerge as a winged adult.

Lifecycle of crapemyrtle bark scale

Life cycle of Acanthococcus lagerstromiae: (a) egg; (b) nymph; (c) pupae covered with white sac; (c-1) prepupa; (c-2) pupa; (d) adult female; (e) adult male; and (f) ovisac containing the gravid adult female. Figure from Wang et al. (2016b).


If you live in the State of Texas, contact your local county agent or entomologist for management information. If you live outside of Texas, contact your local extension for management options.


Effective management of crapemyrtle bark scale relies on good monitoring practices to ensure that pesticides are targeted towards vulnerable stages. Spraying contact insecticides on egg sacs or pupae may have very little efficacy. Applications should be timed to target crawlers or immature nymphs before coating themselves in the white wax. Crawler activity appears to peak between mid-April to beginning of May for several locations across Texas and Louisiana. To determine crawler activity at your location, consider using double-sided sticky tape traps around the branch of the tree. Remove and replace with a new piece of tape weekly, and check tapes for presence of crawlers (see images below). When numbers of crawlers start to increase, consider control measures below.

Biological Control

Several natural enemies have been found in the landscape to provide suppression of crapemyrtle bark scale. In a lady beetle exclusion trial (pesticide treatment for lady beetles), natural enemies were found to provide approximately 75% suppression of crapemyrtle bark scale (Merchant et al., unpublished data).  Care should be taken to preserve natural enemies where possible.

Chemical Control

Several pesticides have been investigated for efficacy against crapemyrtle bark scale, with most success from the following active ingredients:

  • Imidacloprid (as a drench)
  • Dinotefuran (as a drench or bark spray)
  • Pyriproxyfen (as a bark spray)
  • Buprofezin (as a bark spray)
  • Bifenthrin (variable results, as a bark spray)

Drench applications should be made very early in the season, at the time of bud break (around March in Texas), since these drench insecticides can take about 60 days to translocate into the plant to be effective against the scale. The bark spray applications should ideally be made when crawlers are out and exposed; typically near mid-April and beginning of May. Spraying female egg sacs and male pupae may not be effective. Insecticide applications will not remove white spots or sooty mold, but prevent future scale population growth. Crapemyrtle trees shed their bark, and if crapemyrtle bark scale has been effectively managed, no new white spots or sooty mold should form after bark shedding. Please note that crapemyrtle aphids, a common pest found on crapemyrtle leaves, can also be a source of honeydew and subsequent sooty mold.

Related Publications

Vafaie et al. (2018). Spread and management of Acanthococcus (=EriococcuslagerstroemiaeKuwana (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) on crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia spp.) in the USA. International IPM Symposium. Poster.

Gu, M. (2018). Alternative hosts of crapemyrtle bark scale. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension.

Miller et al. (2017). Crapemyrtle bark scale: a pretty plant, an invasive pest, and a plan to protect pollinators. Poster.

Vafaie et al. (2017). Bark and systemic insecticidal control of Acanthococcus (=Eriococcuslagerstromiae (crapemyrtle bark scale) on landscape crapemyrtles, 2016. Arthropod Management Tests, 42: tsx130.

Vafaie et al. (2015). Spread and management of Eriococcus lagerstromiae Kuwana (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) on crapemyrtle. Entomological Society of America. Poster.

Gu et al. (2014). Crapemyrtle bark scale: A new exotic pest. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension.

Gu et al. Crapemyrtle Bark Scale National Research Team Website.


Jiang, N.; Xu, H. (1998) Observation on Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana. J. Anhui Agric. Univ., 25: 142–144. (In Chinese)

Merchant et al. (2014). Discover and spread of Eriococcus lagerstromiae Kuwana (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), a new invasive pest of crape myrtle, Lagerstromia spp. Entomological Society of America. Poster.

Wang et al. (2016a). Crapemyrtle bark scale: a new threat for crapemyrtles, a popular landscape plant in the U.S. Insects, 7(4): 78.

Wang, Z.; Chen, Y.; Knox, G.W.; Diaz, R. (2016b). Crape Myrtle Bark Scale. Available online: ~/media/system/7/8/d/1/78d165df43ac0d4767607d88dadfb841/pub3440bugbizcrapemyrtlebarkscale_final.pdf (accessed on 16 May 2016).

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Article author: Mike Merchant
Most recently reviewed by: Erfan Vafaie & Janet Hurley (2018)

Common Name(s): centipede


Centipedes can easily be distinguished from millipedes by counting the number of pairs of legs arising from most body segments: millipedes have two pairs, while centipedes bear one pair per segment, with the first pair of legs being modified into fangs. Centipedes are generally flattened and have a pair of well developed antennae on the head. Some centipedes, such as the house centipede (Scutigera coleoptrata Linnaeus), have long legs and are capable of running rapidly. The largest centipedes, Scolopendra spp. (Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae) may grow to be about 6 inches long. Millipede bodies are rounded or somewhat flattened. Legs are short and movement is slow, with movement of legs appearing wave-like. Most species are less than 1 ½ inch long, although one species, Narceus americanus (Beauvois) (Order Spirobolida), in west Texas grows up to 4 inches long.

Origin and Distribution

Centipedes are primitive arthropods, relatives of the insects. The name “centipede” literally means 100 legs, and indeed some kinds of centipedes have nearly 100 legs. they are identified by their long, segmented body with each segment bearing one pair of legs. Centipedes are predators. They feed on any small crawling organisms they can catch. Scutigera is one common genus with very long legs that move in a rippling motion. Scolopendra is the giant centipede, a large (up to 8” long) and fast species with a reportedly painful bite. Centipedes in the genus Strigamia, soil centipedes, may also be common. Among all the centipedes, Scolopendra is considered to be the most dangerous because of its venomous fangs and feet.

Life Cycle

Simple metamorphosis. Centipedes and millipedes spend the winter as adults in protected habitats and become active in the spring. During the warmer months, females lay eggs in soil and cover them with a sticky substance, although some species give birth to living young. Immature stages (larvae) hatching from eggs several days later are similar to adults but smaller, having fewer leg-bearing body segments. Additional leg-bearing segments are produced with each molt. Millipedes develop through about seven stages (instars) in 21 to 25 weeks. Some centipedes are known to have lived up to 6 years.


If you live in the State of Texas, contact your local county agent or entomologist for management information. If you live outside of Texas, contact your local extension for management options.

Centipedes do not generally become abundant like some millipedes. If centipedes are common in a structure it would be an indication of abundant arthropod prey. General pest control and insect exclusion (especially ensuring tightly closing doors) are recommended to eliminate centipedes. Although centipedes look scary to some, in most cases centipedes are accidental building invaders and require no special treatment or control.


Related Publications

Literature: Brook et al. 1982; Drees & Wicksten 1990

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