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Rice stink bug


Most recently reviewed by: Tyler Mays & Pat Porter (2018)

Common Name(s): Rice Stink Bug

Pest Location

Row Crop

Description

Adult rice stink bugs are straw-colored, 3/8 to 1/2- inch long, somewhat elongated and flattened with forward pointing spines on the shield-like segment behind the head (pronotum).  Nymphs hatching from eggs are at first bright red with black markings. As they grow they begin to resemble adults but do not have fully developed wings or forward-pointing spines, but they have an intricate red and back pattern on the upper surface of their abdomens. Rice stink bug adults migrate from wild grasses to sorghum and rice when plants start to develop kernels or develop in and around fields on wild host plants.

Nymphal and adult feeding removes contents (endosperm) from developing seed (milk and soft dough stages) and results in an empty seed coat or shriveled kernels.  Yellow to black spots develop at feeding sites on rice kernels injured later (dough stage) and are often associated with microorganisms. This type of damage is commonly called “pecky rice”, and it has been correlated with reduced head yield and increased percent broken kernels in milled rice, a loss in quality or “grade.”

 

Habitat & Hosts

Wild host plants include barnyard grass and sedge (Cyperus sp.). Rice stink bugs can be collected from grasses with developing seed heads, such as Johnsongrass and rice.

Life Cycle

Winter (October through April) is spent in the adult stage near the ground in wild grasses. In April and early May adults become active and mated females lay clusters of 10 to 30 light green barrel-shaped eggs arranged in double rows on leaves and seed heads (panicles) of wild grasses, sorghum and rice. Nymphs hatch in about 5 days. They molt five times as they grow over a period of 15 to 28 days before becoming adults. Development from egg to adult occurs in 18 to 50 days, depending on temperature. Up to 5 generations can develop annually, with two or three developing on sorghum and rice.

Related Publications

See the website for the Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Beaumont.

Bugwood Images

Fall armyworm

Article author: Pat Porter
Most recently reviewed by: Ed Bynum (2018)

Common Name(s): Fall Armyworm

Pest Location

Row Crop

Description

Adult moths have a wingspan of approximately 1.5 inches. Females have front wings that are dark grey. Males have wings that have light and dark areas throughout and a whitish area near the tip.

Eggs are laid in groups of 100 to 200 and are covered by grey scales from the female moth’s body. The scales often impart a “fuzzy” appearance to the egg mass. Eggs are pearly green in color when newly laid and darken to a brown color in about 12 hours. Just prior to larval hatch, which occurs in 3 – 7 days, the eggs become blackish colored.

Small larvae range in color from a light cream when newly hatched to greenish after feeding, while medium-sized larvae range from light green to olive-green or brown. As with most larvae, identification in the first growth stage is difficult. To distinguish young fall armyworm larvae from those of the corn earworm and southwestern corn borer, look for a small black spot on the side of the first abdominal segment, just behind the last pair of true legs on the thorax. Fall armyworm has such a spot and the other two species do not.

Color characters are not very reliable for fall armyworm larval identification. Older larvae vary in color from light tan or green to blackish, and can change color as they mature. They have three fairly narrow stripes down the body as viewed from above; one down the centerline and two widely separated by darker areas. These may be variously colored, from whitish to yellow-white to reddish. There is a wider dark stripe down the side of the body and a wavy yellow-red blotched stripe just below this.

The best field identification characters do not involve color. Larvae have four pairs of abdominal prolegs and a pair of anal prolegs at the tip of the abdomen. They also have four dark spots arranged in a rectangle on the top of the eighth abdominal segment near the end of the abdomen.

Older fall armyworm can be distinguished from true armyworm, corn earworm, and the corn borer species by the presence of a white inverted “Y” mark on the front of the dark reddish-brown, mottled, head capsule. This character may be absent on younger larvae.

Origin and Distribution

Fall armyworm is native to the Western Hemisphere and overwinters in areas of mild climate.

Life Cycle

Fall armyworm adults migrate north from overwintering sites in south Texas and northern Mexico and become established in corn and other crops in the spring. Fall armyworm does not overwinter in the northern part of Texas and does not undergo winter diapause. This species has a very broad host plant range that includes wheat, alfalfa, sorghum, corn, and other crop and non-crop plants.

Fall armyworm larvae feed 2 to 3 weeks. Mature larvae burrow an inch or two in the soil to pupate. Pupation lasts for about 2 weeks. Pupae are smooth and reddish brown to dark brown in color and look much like the pupae of other lepidopterous pests of corn. Adults then emerge to mate and females can lay up to 1,100 eggs. Adults live about two weeks. There are several generations each year, and migratory moths may continue to arrive throughout the season.

There are two host strains of fall armyworm, one of which feeds predominately on corn, sorghum and cotton (known as the corn strain), and the other, the rice strain, feeds on rice, Bermudagrass and Johnsongrass.

The fall armyworm and true armyworm get their names from the behavioral trait that causes larvae to move from one field to another when they have consumed all available food. In essence, they are said to move like an army.

Management

If you live in the State of Texas, contact your local county agent or entomologist for management information. If you live outside of Texas, contact your local extension for management options.

Home garden control options include:

  • Spinosad (Rate varies by brand name)
  • Permethrin (small larvae only)
  • Synthetic pyrethroids (small larvae only)
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. subspecies Aizawai)

Related Publications

Bugwood Images

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Small Grains